Posted by: on February 9, 2017


This photograph is of a hospital built on Tiber Island in Rome, Italy. Tiber Island is tied forever to the origins of Rome, and to the hospital that has been a famous place of healing since the arrival of sacred snakes  said to protect the people from the plague in ancient times. This hospital on Tiber Island holds a very special place in my heart – two of my grandsons were born there within the past five years. When I visit my daughter and her husband and sons– they have lived in Rome for some years now – I always love to racewalk along the Tiber River in the early morning. It is a beautiful and peaceful time of day, and I never fail to stop to look at the hospital in the midst of the river and be grateful for all the good fortune it has brought to my family. One morning, the light on the bell tower was so perfect that I took this photograph.

This bell tower helps me to reflect on the impact of the political turmoil in the United States on children. What are they hearing? What are they seeing? What are they thinking? This is hardly the first time that our nation has been in turmoil. Think about children during the American Revolution, the Civil War, the Great Depression, World War II, the internment of our Japanese American citizens, the Civil Rights Movement – many children have experienced fear, confusion, uncertainty, and yes – suffering. I would like to encourage everyone to just stop and think – what about the children right now? They are watching us, and they are learning from us. What are we modeling, and what are we teaching them?

I think that hope should be a birthright of every child in the United States. Hope for their future, and hope that the adults around them are forever seeking what is right and what is good. Our nation, founded on idealistic principles of liberty and equality, has been built on the hopes of so many immigrants and so many strong people whose vision of a great democracy inspired their courage, persistence, and determination to build a better life for all the people. Nothing was easy for them! As a young African American man who descended from slaves says in the film A Place at the Table, “They never gave up, and they never gave in.”

This commentary is not proposing that I or anyone else opt out of our civic responsibility to stand up for our beliefs or resist anything that we believe will harm the common good. Rather, it is suggesting that we just take time right now to ask about what is happening to our children? They are depending on the adults around them for hope and for reassurance that their future is a beacon of light. It is exciting, I think, for children to be around adults with an animated interest in political and civic affairs – adults who express their commitments and act on them for the public good. However, being in the presence of adults (however accomplished they may be) who are modeling hopeless, denigrating, or hate-filled talk and action is something quite different – is this what we want to teach our children? As the education author Parker Palmer has written – we teach who we are. Who are we right now?

I think we can be beacons of light – people who demonstrate beliefs and commitments in positive and respectful ways. We can be people who encourage children to become good citizens – citizens who can engage in civil discourse – even in periods of disruption and disturbance – that leads to respectful acknowledgement of multiple perspectives and constructs positive steps toward peace. We can stand up, speak out, and resist injustice —  while still modeling the best of ourselves for the children who are our future.


Written  by Beatrice S. Fennimore a teacher educator focused on advocacy and social justice for all children.

Filed Under: General


Posted by: on December 26, 2016

Hello dear blog readers!

I offer you this re-posting of one of my favorite blogs, hoping that it will inspire powerful resolutions for the new year soon to come.  I attribute this folk tale to the  very wise and wonderful relative who first told it to me (partially in Italian) — but I suspect that it exists in varied forms  around the world.  I love this folk tale because it reminds me of the importance of “carrying heavier stones” for the sake of others.  Many years ago, when I  just started graduate school, I decided to spend some time thinking carefully of how a “good person” could be identified.  After some consideration, I decided to think of a “good person” as someone who carried much more responsibility for others than was actually required for their own success and personal satisfaction. Since then, I have asked many of my university students to give me an example of someone in their lives who was a really “good person.” Almost universally, they have talked about people they knew who made sacrifices for others — in their families, in their communities, and in their professional lives– with a generous eye toward the common good. At this time, many of us are aware of the depressed or even despairing ways in which some people around us might be  viewing the political state of our nation.  How can we all move forward together?  I  think we need a lot of citizens  who are a source of calm, of hopeful vision, and of dedicated service to the common good.  We do have a whole new year ahead — and it undoubtedly will offer all of us countless ways to ACT on our true dedication to justice, fairness, equality, and good will toward all.


I think we all wonder at times if it is sensible to spend time reaching out to others and advocating for their rights and needs.  After all, we are truly very busy with our work and our families and other responsibilities. And, as we persist in trying to make a difference for others, we sometimes wonder what we are actually accomplishing!

We need some sources of support and encouragement to keep us going. I think we often need to return to our philosophy of life. What do we value and what is important to us? When I reflect on such thoughts, my mind often returns to a folk tale that a beloved older relative told me many years ago.  Here it is:

There was once a small village by the side of a tall mountain. The adults in the village were very worried about their young people, who they thought were becoming greedy and unconcerned about others.  They held a community meeting about this problem, and decided to ask for help from a very wise old man who lived nearby in the hills. He was said to have special powers to change hearts from absorption with self to love and concern for others. To everyone’s delight, the wise man agreed to come to the village to speak with all the young people.

On a warm and sunny day, the wise man arrived. He called all the young people to him and led them close to the side of the mountain. He explained that they would all climb up the mountain until they reached a fresh spring of water. There, he told them, they would all learn a great lesson of life. First, though, he pointed to the many stones of different sizes and shapes that lay all around them on the ground. “Each of you,” he said, “must choose a stone to carry up the mountain. Choose carefully! In life it is important to choose that which is worth carrying.”

As the young people milled around, considering different sizes and shapes of stones, they fell into three groups. The first group quietly laughed and said such things to each other as “Does this silly old man think we care about stones to carry up the mountain? What for! So what? Just find the smallest and easiest stones around here.” They all found stones so tiny they could barely be seen in their hands.

The second group looked around cautiously. As they spoke with one another, they said things like, “This man seems nice but strange, and we don’t want him to cause any trouble for us. Let’s find stones of bright color big enough for him to see but easy to carry.” They found stones that made a good appearance but weighed quite little.

The third and smallest group of young people talked seriously among themselves. “This man is very wise. We should respect him.  If he wants us to carry stones of importance, let’s pick the biggest ones we can carry. Surely we are doing this for some important purpose.” They picked up large and heavy stones.

Soon, they all started up the mountain with their stones. The climb became steep and the sun grew warm.   The wise men urged them on toward the spring.  The young people with the tiny stones were proud of themselves for being so smart and making their climb so easy.  The group with the stones of good appearance but little weight was glad as well that the stones were not a great burden as they climbed. The group with the larger stones was finding the climb quite difficult. Looking around and realizing how light the stones of many of the others were, they almost felt foolish for burdening themselves in such a way. Still they persisted, because they believed that the climb with the wise man must have some great purpose.

Finally they all reached the fresh spring of water. Now they could drink and refresh themselves and the descent from the mountain would be much easier. But, after they all drank the water, they realized that they were very, very hungry. “Wise man,” they called out, “What did you bring us to eat?” The wise man answered, “I have brought nothing. It is you who have carried the food.” Then he closed his eyes, reached out his hands, whispered magic words, and changed all the stones into delicious loaves of bread.

The sweet smells of fresh bread filled the air.  But the young people with the tiny stones now realized that had almost nothing to eat. Those with stones of good appearance but little weight had only a little more and it would not satisfy their great hunger. It was the group who had carried the largest stones who would have their fill. When those with the smaller stones began to complain, the wise man silenced them. “Listen carefully,” he said. “It is what you agree to carry in life that will sustain you. You must learn to carry heavy duties of responsibility as well as the burdens of others in your village. Reach out to all in need, and go to sleep each night exhausted from work and care. Then you will be greatly loved, and find the only true joys of life.”

I’ll leave you with this story and without further comment. I hope you will enjoy reflecting on it as much as I do.

Written by Beatrice S. Fennimore, a teacher educator focused on advocacy and social justice for all children.

Filed Under: General


Posted by: on December 13, 2016

December greetings to my blog readers! I posted the blog below a number of years ago during this time of year. It still  tends to be one of my most popular blog entries — people read it throughout the year! Thus, I decided to re-post it during this holiday season. I am thinking a great deal about the time of political turmoil in which we are living.  I am trying to encourage my students in teacher education to always remember  that we always have the power  to  influence everyone and everything around us. Even as we seek to filter and recognize the incendiary and sometimes misleading information circulating on the Internet,  we must have the courage to find and act on what we believe is true and right. Every day, where we live and work, there are countless opportunities to light the way for others by directing our thoughts, our words, and our actions toward the common good . This is a really great time of year to take advantage of those opportunities! 

The Christmas Mouse in the Calendar

Christmas Mouse Calendar

When I first began working at my current university, we had a department secretary who sold Avon products.  This was something very new to me; I was adjusting to a lot of new things after moving from New York City to the hills of Western Pennsylvania. However, as soon as our secretary handed me the Avon catalog, I decided that a purchase was in order. Perusing the section on Christmas items, my eye fell on a cloth Advent calendar with a cute little mouse that moved daily from the first pocket at the start of December all the way to pocket 24 on Christmas Eve. It’s been a long time now since I bought that calendar, but I continue to greet it fondly each year as I hang it in its customary spot.  Placing the little mouse in pocket number one, I anticipate its all-too-rapid speed to number twenty-four. As much as I try to treasure time and hold on to it, especially during the holidays, it continues to rush by. Today, it seems impossible that the little mouse is once again resting in pocket twenty-four. Very soon now it will return to the box where I keep my Advent collection, and rest quietly in the basement until Thanksgiving weekend next year.

As we all know, life like time moves only in the direction of forward. We can’t slow it or stop it, but we do have a lot of control over what we do with it. I think that one of the most important things that we can do with time is work as hard as possible to enhance the lives of others.  This belief of mine is affirmed every year during the holiday season.  Much of December can seem blurred with the sense of an overwhelming rush of time and expectation. Yet, it is a month that provides us with the priceless opportunity to remember that each day can be filled with small greetings, gestures, and kind acts that cost us nothing but make life so much better for others. Our own daily intention to live in a way that helps others to live in peace may well be the key to our own happiness and satisfaction.

Many of my experiences as a college professor remind me of the importance of efforts to enhance the lives of others every day. For example, toward the end of the semester in mid-December, I was having a conference with one of my students and the cooperating teacher with whom he had been placed for a field experience. Sitting in an empty classroom as we talked together, I could hear the voices of many children in the other classrooms and in the hallways.  During the meeting, the cooperating teacher shared what it meant to him now to look back on a career that provided the opportunity to have had a genuine effect on so many people. When the meeting was over, I stayed to talk for a few more minutes with my student. I wanted him to really think about what the words of his cooperating teacher had meant in terms of his own career.  It would be very important for him to also be able to look back one day and feel wonderful about his impact on others. He might accomplish some big things – graduate degrees or awards or promotions. But ultimately the “big things” would pale beside the knowledge that, every single day, he had done everything he could to enhance the lives of as many of his students and colleagues as possible.

I think that’s the most important lesson that I learn from my calendar mouse every year. December will rush by for sure! But every day of the holiday season is rich with the opportunity to think of others and to act with intention to reduce suffering and increase justice and peace wherever possible. Knowing that the days will inevitably pass, the opportunities to do good become even more precious.

Peace and love!

Written by Beatrice S. Fennimore a teacher educator focused on advocacy and social justice for all children

Filed Under: General


Posted by: on August 17, 2016
Solidarity Center Gdansk Poland Gate to Old Lenin Shipyard Gdansk Poland Worker in Solidarity Center Gdansk Poland

On a recent trip through the Baltic region, I had the opportunity to visit the European Solidarity Center (Europejskie Centrum Solidarnosc) in Gdansk, Poland.  This museum offers an amazing opportunity to reflect on the power and complexity of democratic social movements through the lens of the relatively recent 1980-1981 Solidarity Movement in Poland. Solidarity was the first independent self-governing trade union free of communist control in a Warsaw pact country. Not unlike similar movements around the world, the creation of Solidarity was and remains controversial.  Controversy is inherent in grassroots uprisings of civil resistance that successfully counter human oppression.

Opened in 2014, the European Solidarity Center sits near the historic Gate No. 2 of the former Lenin Shipyard (now known as the Gdansk Shipyard) on the edge of Gdansk old town. (See a photo of the gate above). It was in that shipyard that Lech Walesa, then an unknown electrician in the shipyard, gave his first speech in 1979 at an illegal ceremony commemorating workers who had been killed in an uprising in 1970. Walesa went on to famously jump over the shipyard wall in 1980 to help lead the strike of ship workers, and ultimately to win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983. Millions of strikers and Solidarity members – 10 million by the first Solidarity Congress in 1981 – shared in the accomplishments of the movement.

The European Solidarity Center is constructed from the rusted hulls of ships built in the Gdansk Shipyard; visitors move from room to room to interactively experience political events that took place between 1970 and 1989. While in the museum one can palpably feel the incredible power of committed people who rise up, join together, and seek freedom in extraordinarily difficult circumstances.  In this case, the Solidarity movement contributed to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the return of freedom across Eastern and Central Europe. As I walked through the museum I recalled the famous words of Louis Brandeis displayed in the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia — “The only title in our democracy superior to that of president is the title of citizen.”

In former blogs I have shared the idea that young children and their teachers can create the experience of a social movement through small classroom projects. All children would benefit from learning more about social movements…engaging in critical thought about the political dynamics of a democracy is essential to the life of every future citizen.  Social movements are complex and offer many opportunities to think deeply about the responsibility of citizens to stand up for fairness and freedom in society.  I believe that our current presidential race has underscored the need for much more citizen education in critical political thinking in the U.S.  While school children may be exposed to historical information about movements, the information is often oversimplified.  For example, some years ago I taught a course in the history and philosophy of education. In one class we discussed the civil rights movement and viewed a segment of the Eyes on the Prize documentary. One of my students seemed very surprised at the content of the film and said, “I don’t understand this! People in the movement seemed to have experienced so much hatred and violence, but we were always taught in school that it was a non-violent movement.”  Her words underscore the importance of deeper learning about social movements, including the ways in which in which laws and rights can be tested and upheld through the courageous efforts of ordinary citizens who are willing to take great risks.

Such civic education can be offered not only in the schools but in many other ways throughout communities. For example, some years ago in Pittsburgh, the entire city was encouraged in a “one book one community” initiative to read and discuss the book To Kill a Mockingbird. My husband and I contributed to this initiative by offering a free course on legal and educational issues in the book at a local university. Our course was attended by people spanning a wide range of age, education, work, and experience. The discussions were dynamic; I think we all taught and learned from one another.  Such community initiatives could also be focused on books about movements for human freedom and human rights throughout the world. A movement is created when people work together to address a critical social issue in order to promote social justice and the common good.  I think that the current Black Lives Matter movement is a very good example – and we are in need of many other such movements, small and great, in our world today.

The following reference was consulted and utilized to write this blog: Peters, Florian. (n.d.) Solidarność Yesterday – Solidarity Today? The European Solidarity Center in Gdańsk endeavors to combine the past with the present.  Retrieved from http://www.cultures-of-history.uni-jena.de/exhibitions/poland/solidarnosc-yesterday-solidarity-today-the-european-solidarity-center-in-gdansk-endeavors-to-combine-the-past-with-the-present/ (Translated by David Burnett)

The photographs of the European Solidarity Center were taken by the author.

Written by Beatrice S. Fennimore a teacher educator focused on advocacy and social justice for all children

Filed Under: General


Posted by: on May 25, 2016


High Resolution River Pictures - View is a large image


If you have never taken a look at the Bank Street Occasional Paper Series (OPS) this is a great time to do it! The theme of the newly published OPS # 35 is Progressive Practices in Public Schools; editors Jonathan Silin and Meredith Moore provided all the authors (including me) with an exciting opportunity to shine light on the many ways in which progressivism can continue to be a powerful force in public education today.  My essay is called Say That the River Turns: Social Justice Intentions in Progressive Public School Classrooms.

The title and focus of my essay was inspired by this beautiful line from the poem The Sermon on the Warpland written by Gwendolyn Brooks: “Say that the river turns, and turn the river.” I am grateful to the graduate student in my summer course Young Children and Social Policy at Teachers College in 2010 who focused her creative project on this line of the poetry. Since then, I have re-read and thought about the poem many times.  I believe Brooks truly captures the  powerful role that language must play in resistance to social injustice. We first have to say that something can be done and then we have to do something to start to turn the injustice around!

I hope you will take some time to read the entire OPS #35 and share it with others. Here is the link:




Written by Beatrice S. Fennimore a teacher educator focused on advocacy and social justice for all children





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Posted by: on April 5, 2016
Cherry Blossoms DC


Are you heading to the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in Washington D.C.? It would be great to see you at the session titled Early Childhood Education for a Diverse Democratic Society: Promising Paradigms and Research Gaps. It’s on Friday April 8 from 4:05 to 5:35 in the Marriott Marquis, Level Two, Marquis Salon 1. All of the presenters are authors in the 2016 Handbook of Early Childhood Teacher Education (Routledge). My presentation is called A Social Justice Approach to Diverse Families.

Think too about coming to the Division K (Teacher Education) Business Meeting, which starts at 6:15 PM on Saturday April 9. It is always an interesting meeting attended by a lot of AERA participants committed to the issues and challenges of teacher education. The Division K  party starts after the meeting at 8:00 PM and it promises to be a lot of fun with a very lively group of people.
Have a great meeting. I hope to see you there!


Written by Beatrice S. Fennimore a teacher educator focused on advocacy and social justice for all children


Filed Under: General


Posted by: on February 28, 2016


Hello readers of my blog! I first published this on Saint Patrick’s Day on March 17, 2013.  I love Saint Patrick’s Day, and I honestly believe that I can not improve on this blog! Here it is again in 2016. It includes one of the most poignant stories any friend ever told me — the story of a grandmother who had searched the fields every morning during the famine in Ireland to find some grain for her hungry little children. As an older woman, long-since arrived as an immigrant in the United States, she still cried before meals wishing she had been able to have this food when her children were young. How many immigrant stories exist in the United States today? Let’s all go out of our way this month to listen to some of them!

                Whenever I visit Ellis Island, or look over at it from Manhattan with the Statue of Liberty to the left, I think of my ancestors who came to the United States. Like so many people, I wish that I knew much more about them. Before my last remaining uncle passed away some years ago, he gave me his grandmother’s photo album. None of the people in it were identified, and he had no idea of who they were. When I look at that disintegrating album today, I see the faces of very serious looking men and women. They do not smile for the camera, and their faces reflect very hard work.  Some of the young men look pretty tough –they certainly don’t look as though they are afraid of a fight!  All the photographs reflect the lives of people who came to America from somewhere else. The fact that they were immigrants meant that they left a great deal behind – often parents as well as a way of life. Their hope was no different than the hopes of people around the world today – hope for opportunity and hope for safety.

The last time I visited Ellis Island, I walked over to some phones on the wall next to aging photographs. You could pick up a phone, look at the picture, and listen to the voice of someone sharing his or her immigrant experience. My favorite picture was that of an elderly woman pulling a donkey and a plow in a field. She was not smiling, and her face was lined with hard work and care. The voice on the phone was that of a man, her son, who talked about the day he walked across that field to say good-bye to her.  He was leaving for America. His mother looked at him and turned away. He never saw or spoke with her again. Leaving, and being left behind, is never easy. We endure such sad final partings because we must – either to seek for ourselves or allow others to see the freedom that lives in all our hearts and minds.

I often show my classes a beautiful film called A PLACE AT THE TABLE from Teaching for Tolerance. In that film, many different young people talk about the immigrant experiences of their families. A young woman with Irish heritage shows a picture of two of her ancestors, who took a boat alone to America from Ireland as young girls. Their parents were suffering the great potato famine, and took a chance on the girls surviving in America on their own. Indeed, these girls managed to survive the journey and make their way in a new land. This could not have been easy. Their young faces in the photograph  always make the think of all the children in the world today who are on their own, resilient enough to keep trying in spite of war, relentless poverty, and other very difficult circumstances.

Thinking of my ancestors, and of all immigrants, I always remember a story someone once told me.  I had a good friend in my graduate program who was about 20 years my senior. We often traveled to and from school together. One day, she told me the story of her grandmother, who had survived the great potato famine in Ireland. Every morning during the famine she would have to get up and carry three small children with her out into the fields to search for grain that might have fallen on the ground. After finding some, she would make a little bowl of cereal for her hungry children. Years later, when the children had grown up and her grandmother had joined the rest of the family to live in the United States; there was a new routine before meals. Her grandmother would look at all the food on the table before her, cry, and say, “Oh, if I had only had this food when I had the babies!” When she calmed herself and was more at peace, they would all begin to eat.

These are the stories that show us the face of human suffering, and help us remember the sanctuary that so many sought and still seek when they come to our nation. I always think of Saint Patrick’s Day as a happy day and a good time. But I also think about the compassion and generosity that would make such a tremendous difference to those who come to our nation today — from other places and other struggles. To welcome them with open hearts is to give them the chance that our own ancestors sought not all that long ago.

Written by Beatrice S. Fennimore a teacher educator focused on advocacy and social justice for all children

Filed Under: General


Posted by: on January 1, 2016


Happy New Year to one and all. This message is written to wish you the kind of happiness and success that is completely in your grasp, in spite of any sorrows or setbacks or challenges you will face in the year to come. I am referring to the way in which Viktor Frankl envisions success and happiness in his beautiful book Man’s Search for Meaning:

“Don’t aim at success – the more you aim at it and make it a target, the more you are going to miss it. For success, like happiness, cannot be pursued; it must ensue and it only does so as the unintended side-effect of one’s personal dedication to a cause greater than oneself…Happiness must happen, and the same holds with success: you must let it happen by not caring about it. I want you to listen to what your conscience commands you to do and to carry it out to the best of your knowledge” (1986, p. 12).

What will our commitment to a cause greater than ourselves be in this New Year? Responsible citizen participation in public actions and activities that serve the common good? Stronger fair and democratic practices in our workplace? Compassionate involvement in the lives of the weak or the poor? An insistent search for social justice in situations that seem to defy our every effort? Such commitments empower us even when we have reason to question our effectiveness. The happiness and success that ensues might not make sense to everyone in a competitive and highly consumerist society. Still it is always within our power to follow our conscience and do what is important rather than what looks important to others. There are so many great causes from which to choose!

Warmest good wishes for that kind of happy and successful 2016!


Written by Beatrice S. Fennimore a teacher educator focused on advocacy and social justice for all children

Photograph of the Sea of Galilee was taken by the author in June 2015

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Posted by: on December 9, 2015


Winter for Blog

As the holidays approach, the words PEACE ON EARTH begin to appear. It’s hard to align those beautiful words with national and world events. We have to recognize the sorrow of all those who mourn for loved ones killed in sudden attacks of terrorists or of deranged individuals with personal access to dangerous weapons of mass-murder. We have to honor the memory of so many who have died those violent deaths without warning. And in the United States we also have to ask ourselves why young people are being gunned down in the streets in police-based encounters– young people who so often have been underserved, ignored, or even brutalized by the social institutions designed to help and protect them. Such institutions can include the poorly-resourced schools that marginalized them or pushed them out. These are terrible situations. Yet, we don’t want to give up hope, we want to bring light to the world, we want to continue to work for peace – but realistically how can we do that?

The best answer for me is in words written by the late Dr. David Purpel in his wonderful book Moral Outrage in Education (2004). In his belief, the first step in continuing to work for peace is the realization of the limitations of what any individual can accomplish. We can and should be morally outraged about the all-too-present lack of justice in our world, and we can also seek to balance our outrage with personal responsibility for contributing to a peaceful society. The opposite of enacted moral outrage can be hopelessness and inertia – conditions that produce absolutely nothing. Why is it that so many people believe there is really nothing that anyone can do to solve our complex social dilemmas? I think that too many of us feel that we have to somehow magically solve huge problems right away. If we can’t do that, we feel like failures. The alternative I suggest is to continue to act strongly and publicly on our commitments to social justice while accepting the fact that failure is always possible. This requires humility. Once we have it, we can have the courage to try to change the world – we can believe that a just endeavor is always of value regardless of the immediately visible outcome. There is always something that can be done – and we can always be willing to seek that which is within the power of our actions and intentions. In that light, this quote from Dr. Purpel offers encouraging insight:

“…I want to address the importance of humility…it is important to draw a line between humility and despair, for it is one thing to be realistic and honest about our capacities and another thing to surrender to a consciousness of determinism and fatalism. The humility I speak to is not about modesty or self-deference but about the acknowledgement of the mystery and awesomeness of the human condition as well as our present, social, cultural, and personal crises. I have concluded that there is an inverse relationship between the significance of a problem and its openness to a solution – Problems surely can and should be ameliorated, suffering and pain reduced, justice and equity increased, peace furthered, violence lessened, meaning strengthened. To accomplish even such limited gains is exalting and exhilarating for as The Talmud** teaches, “It is not for us to finish the task—but neither are we free to take no part in it.”

So this holiday season I suggest that we continue to hope for PEACE ON EARTH, and to do so with a sense of moral outrage that sustains our continued determination throughout our lives to contribute to the peace that builds a just society for all people.


** Dr. Purpel here based his philosophical work in the Jewish tradition. I want to recognize all faith traditions as well as those who choose not to have one. My own belief is that the essence of this quote holds truth for all – the fact that we are unable to completely solve the dilemmas of social justice does not excuse us from a powerful life-long effort to do so.

Written by Beatrice S. Fennimore a teacher educator focused on advocacy and social justice for all children

Filed Under: General


Posted by: on November 6, 2015



Bernard Malamud once wrote, “We have children because we believe we can love.” I think this is true – the desire to love and to share love with children seems to be engraved in human hearts. This desire, however, does not always come with full knowledge of or preparation for what parenthood will entail. How many of us can truly envision the dimensions of work and patience and resilience that will be demanded of us? Even when we were witnesses as children to the financial or emotional struggles of our own parents, we often cannot truly understand the vulnerability faced by all families until we have children of our own. It is never easy to be a parent or a family — all parents and families deserve recognition, respect, and compassionate support.

When we are asked the question, “What can teachers really do?” one of the many answers is that teachers can model deep regard and respect for the family of every child. In my recent chapter titled A Social Justice Approach to Diverse Families published in the Handbook of Early Childhood Teacher Education (Couse & Recchia, 2016, p. 305) I define parents “…flexibly to indicate the adult or adults who have major responsibility for the child and who are the primary source of communication between home and school.”  This definition was created to avoid unwieldy terminology or unintended exclusion of any form of family. As Berman and Enjoli (2010, p. 305) indicate – if you consider yourself a family you are a family! In my chapter I also consider the term “diverse families” to be all-inclusive – every family is considered to “…be part of the world of diversity in which we all live.” Any conceptualization of a “normal” family (often a family with White, married, heterosexual, and economically privileged parents) inevitably creates the idea of “diverse others” that can support bias and differential levels of respect and compassion.

Isn’t it time for all of us as educators to stand up to the deficit-based assumptions that exist about so many families of children who attend our schools? This does not mean that we must blindly accept parental or family circumstances or behaviors that are upsetting or difficult for us. It does mean that we always need to remind ourselves that they “had children because they believed they could love.” There are many ways that we can show every parent or family member our acknowledgement of his or her capacity to love through compassionate support that enhances their confidence in their ability to be a loving and effective parent.

Every family is unique. If we take the approach of inquiry, we can always locate funds of knowledge and better understand the funds of identity of the families of children in our classrooms. An approach of inquiry requires us to relinquish blanket judgments (e.g. “Parents who don’t care about education”) and to make a genuine effort to communicate with and learn more about families. A friend of mine who is a principal once said, “Every child brings his or her very best parent to school.” Our students love and depend on their families, even when we might be tempted to judge them as inadequate. If we as educators are willing to reach out to all families for the sake of the children in our schools and classrooms, we may well encounter a wealth of knowledge that improves our daily practice. For the sake of children – for the sake of families – for our sake as educators who want to move the world forward – let’s do it.


Couse, L. J. & Recchia, S. L. (2016). Handbook of Early Childhood Teacher Education. New York, Routledge.

Written by Beatrice S. Fennimore a teacher educator and advocate for children

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